Organic reagents and their reactions

  • Organic reactions – in a chemical reaction, bonds can be broken in two different ways:

 1. Homolytic fission : one of the bonded atom takes one of the shaired pair of electrons forming a radical.

2. Heterolytic fission : one of the bonded atoms takes both of the shared pair of electrons forming ions.

  • Nucleophile is an atom  that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

  • Electrophile is an atom that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

 Examples: Br2, HBr, NO2

  • Addition reactions : two reactants combine together to make one product.

 

  • Substitution reactions : an atom is replaced with a different atom.

 

  • Elimination reactions : one reactant reacts to form two products.

 

 

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