- Organic reactions – in a chemical reaction, bonds can be broken in two different ways:
1. Homolytic fission : one of the bonded atom takes one of the shaired pair of electrons forming a radical.
2. Heterolytic fission : one of the bonded atoms takes both of the shared pair of electrons forming ions.
- Nucleophile is an atom that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
- Electrophile is an atom that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
Examples: Br2, HBr, NO2
- Addition reactions : two reactants combine together to make one product.
- Substitution reactions : an atom is replaced with a different atom.
- Elimination reactions : one reactant reacts to form two products.