Reactions of Benzene

Electrophilic substitution

  – electrophilic substitution by nitration

  • The electrophlie is attracted to an electron rich ring, and the electrophile accepts a pair of the pi-electrons from the delocalised ring to form a covalent bond.
  • The H is substituted by an electrophile, and the delocalised pi-electron cloud has been disrupted and the intermediate is less stable.
  • The unstable intermediate repidly loses the hygrogen as a H+

Hydrogenation of benzene

Alkylation of benzene

AlCl3 acts as catalyst as it causes the Cl2 to split through heterolytic fission. Once the H+ is substituted, it takes the extra Cl molecule forming HCl.

Acylation of benzene

Sulfonation of benzene

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